Advances in Reptile Lighting

A resource for all reptile keepers

what's all this about?
find out about UV light
the vitamin D story..
the meters we are using in our tests
all about sunlight
the UV requirements of different species
UV transmission tests
UV lighting for reptiles
Introduction to the 2005 Lighting Survey
fluorescent tubes on test
compact fluorescents on test
mercury vapours on test
merc vapours for large enclosures
more info soon..
further reading
related websites
meet the team



References and Further Reading


1. Adkins, E., T. Driggers, G.Ferguson, W.Gehrmann, Z.Gyimesi, E. May, M. Ogle and T. Owens. 2003. Ultraviolet Light and Reptiles, Amphibians. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 13(4): 27 - 37. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

2. Alberts, A. 1993. Ultraviolet Light and Lizards: More than meets the Eye. The Vivarium 5(4): 24-25.

3. Aucone B.M., W.H. Gehrmann, G.W. Ferguson, T.C. Chen, and M.F. Holick. 2003. Comparison of two artificial ultraviolet light sources used for Chuckwalla, Sauromalus obesus, husbandry. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 13(2):14-17. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

4. Gardiner D.W., F.M. Baines and K. Pandher. 2009. Photodermatitis and photokeratoconjunctivitis in a ball python (Python regius) and a blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua spp.). J Zoo Wild Med, 40(4):757-766

5. Bernard, J.B. and M.E. Allen. 1997. Feeding Captive Insectivorous Animals: Nutritional Aspects of Insects as Food. Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook Factsheet 003. Scientific Advisory Group to the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. (available online: accessed 11th June 2005)

6. Bernard, J.S., O.T. Oftendal, P.S. Barboza, M.E. Allen, S.B. Citino, D.E. Ullry, and R.J. Montali. 1991. The response of vitamin D deficient green iguanas (Iguana iguana) to artificial ultraviolet light. Proc Am Vet 1991:147-150.

7. Bernard, J.S., O.T. Oftedal and D.E. Ullry. 1996. Idiosyncrasies of Vitamin D Metabolism in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana). Proceedings, Comparative Nutrition Society Symposium 1:11-14. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

8. Bernard, J.S. and D. E. Ullrey. 1995. An illuminating discussion of Vitamin D, U-V radiation & reptiles. 2nd Proc.Assoc.Rept & Amph.Vet: 40-42

9. Carman, E.N., G.W. Ferguson, W.H. Gehrmann, T.C. Chen and M. F. Holick. 2000. Photobiosynthetic Opportunity and Ability for UVB Generated vitamin D synthesis in free-living house geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) and Texas Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus olivaceous). Copeia 2000 (1): 245-250. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

10. Collinson, M. 2004. This is what can happen when snakes have close access to bright lighting. Post on Livefood UK internet forum. (was available online (accessed 13th June 2005) at:
http://www.livefoodshop.co.uk/forum/index.php?showtopic=11471&st=0 but no longer available.)

11. Coote, J. 2005. pers. comm.

12. Dickinson, H.C. and J.E. Fa. 1997. Ultraviolet light and heat source selection in captive spiny-tailed iguanas Oplurus cuvieri. Zoo Biology 16 (5):391-401. (abstract available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

13. Diffey, B. L. 1991. Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems. Review in Physics in Medicine and Biology 36 (3): 299-328. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

14. Ferguson G.W., W.H. Gehrmann, T.C. Chen, E.S. Dierenfeld, and M.F. Holick. 2002. Effects of Artificial Ultraviolet Light Exposure on Reproductive Success of the Female Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) in Captivity. Zoo Biology 21:525-537. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

15. Ferguson G.W., W.H. Gehrmann, K.B. Karsten, S.H. Hammack, M. McRae, T.C. Chen, N.P.Lung and M.F. Holick. 2003. Do Panther Chameleons Bask to Regulate Endogenous Vitamin D3 Production? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76(1):52-59. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

16. Ferguson G.W., W.H. Gehrmann, K.B. Karsten, A.J. Landwer, E.N. Carman, T.C. Chen and M.F. Holick. 2005. Ultraviolet Exposure and Vitamin D Synthesis in a Sun-Dwelling and a Shade-Dwelling Species of Anolis: Are There Adaptations for Lower Ultraviolet B and Dietary Vitamin D3 Availability in the Shade? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78(2):193-200. (abstract available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

17. Gehrmann, W.H. 1997. Reptile Lighting: A current perspective. The Vivarium 8(2):44-45, 62. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

18. Gehrmann, W.H., J.D. Horner, G.W. Ferguson, T.C. Chen and M.F. Holick. 2004. A Comparison of Responses by Three Broadband Radiometers to Different Ultraviolet-B Sources. Zoo Biology 23:355-363. (abstract available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

19. Gehrmann, W.H., D. Jamieson, G.W.Ferguson, J.D Horner, T.C.Chen and M.F. Holick. 2004. A Comparison of Vitamin D-Synthesizing Ability of Different Light Sources to Irradiances Measured with a Solarmeter Model 6.2 UVB Meter. Herpetological Review 35(4):361-364. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

20. Gillespie, D., F.L. Frye, S.L. Stockham and T. Fredeking. 2000. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Zoo Biology 19(6):495 - 509

21. Holick, M.F. 1995. Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 61(3 Suppl):638S-645S. (Abstract available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

22. Holick, M.F. and M. Jenkins. 2003. The UV Advantage. Ibooks, Inc. New York.

23. Holick, M.F. 2004. Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79(3):362-371. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

24. Holick, M.F., X.Q.Tian and M. Allen. 1995. Evolutionary importance for the membrane enhancement of the production of vitamin D3 in the skin of poikilothermic animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 92(8):3124-6. (abstract available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

25. Honkavaara, J., M. Koivula, E. Korpimaki, H. Siitari and J. Viitala. 2002. Ultraviolet vision and foraging in terrestrial vertebrates. Oikos 98:505-511.

26. Jordan, G. 2005. Green Snakes (Opheodrys). The Wyvern's Lair Internet website. (available online: accessed 13 June 2005)

27. Krughoff, D.A. 2003. Reptile Lighting 2003. Myiguana.com, Hoyleton, Illinois.

28. Leal, M., and L.J. Fleishman. 2002. Evidence for habitat partitioning based on adaptation to environmental light in a pair of sympatric lizard species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:351-359.

29. Lehmann, B., K. Querings and J. Reichrath. 2004. Vitamin D and skin: new aspects for dermatology. Experimental Dermatology 13(s4): 11-15 Epidermal keratinocytes convert 7DHC to 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (Calcitriol) (abstract available online: accessed 11th June 2005)

30. Lehmann, B., T. Genehr, P. Knuschke, J. Pietzsch and M. Meurer. 2001. UVB-Induced Conversion of 7-Dehydrocholesterol to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in an In Vitro Human Skin Equivalent Model. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 117(5): 1179-1185.

31. Loew, E.R., L.J. Fleishman, R.G. Foster and I. Provencio. 2002. The visual pigments and oil droplets in diurnal lizards: a comparative study of Caribbean anoles. Journal of Experimental Biology 205:927-938. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

32. MacCargar, R. 2003. Iguanas and Artificial Ultraviolet Light: How and How Much Made Simple - Well, Not Exactly Simple. Journal of the International Iguana Society 10 (3) 82. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

33. MacCargar, R. 2005. pers. comm.

34. MacLaughlin, J.A., R.R. Anderson, and M.F.Holick. 1982. Spectral character of sunlight modulates photosynthesis of previtamin D3 and its photoisomers in human skin. Science 216(4549):1001-1003. (abstract available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

35. Marsden, A. 1999. Sunlight and Reptile UVB Tubes - The Value of UVB Exposure. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

36. Moehn, L.D. 1974. The effect of Quality of Light on Agonistic Behaviour of Iguanid and Agamid Lizards. Journal of Herpetology (8) 2:175-183. (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

37. O'Brien, M.R. 2001. Lighting and its use in Herpetology (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

38. Rossi, J.V. 2003. Snakes of the United States & Canada. Natural History and Care in Captivity. Krieger Publishing Co. Malabar, Florida, USA.

39. Sherriff, D. pers. comm.

40. Sillman, A.J., J.L. Johnson and E.R. Loew. 2001. Retinal photoreceptors and visual pigments in Boa constrictor imperator. Journal of Experimental Zoology 290(4): 359 - 365

41. Thorpe, R. S., and M. Richard. 2001. Evidence that ultraviolet markings are associated with patterns of molecular gene flow. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98:3929-3934. (available online: accessed 11th June 2005)

42. Wallach, J.D. 1966. Hypervitaminosis D in Green Iguanas. J.A.V.M.A. 149 (7):912-914.

43. Webb, A.R., B.R. DeCosta and M.F. Holick. 1989. Sunlight regulates the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 by causing its photodegradation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 68:882-887. (abstract available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

44. Webb, A.R., L. Kline and M.F. Holick. 1988. Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 67(2): 373-378. (abstract available online: accessed 15th May 2005)

45. World Health Organisation 1994. Environmental Health Criteria 160 Monograph - Ultraviolet Radiation (available online: accessed 15th May 2005)


More References

These references are specifically related to the pages upon which they appear:

The Transmission of Ultraviolet Light through Lizard Skin Shed

46.Wu, P., L. Hou, M. Plikus, M. Hughes, J. Scehnet, S. Suksaweang, R. B. Widelitz, T. Jiang and C. Chuong. 2004. Evo-Devo of amniote integuments and appendages. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 48: 249-270 (available online: accessed 21st Oct 2005)

47. Kaplan, M. 2000. Basic Dermatology. (available online: accessed 20th Oct 2005)

48. Alexander, N.J., and P.F. Parakkal. 1969. Formation of a- and ß-type keratin in lizard epidermis during the molting cycle. Cell and Tissue Research (Historical Archive) 101 (1) 72 - 87. (abstract available online: accessed 21st Oct 2005) http://www.springerlink.com/index/N2142M733T77HLU6.pdf

49. Rossi, J.V. 1996. Dermatology. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Douglas R. Mader, editor. WB Saunders, NY. 104 -117.

50. Alibardi, L. 2000. Light and electron microscopical localization of filagrin-like immunoreactivity in normal and regenerating epidermis of the lizard Podarcis muralis. Acta histochem. 102: 453 - 473.

51. Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2015. The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal Diversity Web at http://animaldiversity.org (available online: accessed March 8th 2015) http://animaldiversity.org/...Grzimek_herps/structure_function/v07_id3_con_reptskin/

52. Lovein, M. 2004. Living in their Habitat. In: Chameleons! Online E-Zine (available online: accessed October 30th 2005)

53. Bouskila, A., and D. Molco. 2002. State of Spiny-tailed lizards (Uromastyx spp.) in Israel. Submission from Israel Nature & Parks Authority to CITES November 2002.

High UVB Output Mercury Vapour Lamps used in Zoos

54. Donoghue, S. 2006. Nutrition. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery (2nd Edition). D. R. Mader, editor. WB Saunders, NY.287

55. Fyfe, G. 2004. Ultraviolet Lighting for Captive Reptiles - a review (testing the conventional wisdom and advertising) Proceedings of the 2004 C.A.R.A. (Care of Australian Reptiles and Amphibians) Conference 17 - 26

56. Coote, J. 1997. Ultra-violet Lights or Vitamin D3 for your Reptiles? Herptile 22 (2): 76 - 80

57. Gehrmann, W.H. 2006. Artificial Lighting. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery (2nd Edition). D. R. Mader, editor. WB Saunders, NY. 1083

58. Wikipedia contributors. 2008. Lux. In: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (available online: accessed January 24, 2008)

59. Outside In (Cambridge) Ltd. 2006. Weblightmeter.com (available online: accessed March 31, 2006)

60. Goetz, M. 2005. UV-B readings - Grand Cayman. Unpublished data

Solar Spectra

61. Sievert, L.M and V.H. Hutchison. 1991. The Influence of Photoperiod and Position of a Light Source on Behavioral Thermoregulation in Crotaphytus collaris (Squamata: Iguanidae). Copeia 1991(1):105 - 110 (available online: accessed May 26, 2007)

62. Hyde L.L., and H. Underwood. 1993. Effects of nightbreak, T-cycle, and resonance lighting schedules on the pineal melatonin rhythm of the lizard Anolis carolinensis: correlations with the reproductive response. J Pineal Res. 15(2):70-80. (abstract available online: accessed May 26, 2007)

63. Underwood, H. 1985. Pineal melatonin rhythms in the lizard Anolis carolinensis: effects of light and temperature cycles. J Comp Physiol [A]. 157(1):57 - 65. (abstract available online: accessed May 26, 2007)

64. Hertz, P. E., L. J. Fleishman and C. Armsby. 1994. The Influence of Light Intensity and Temperature on Microhabitat Selection in Two Anolis Lizards. Functional Ecology 8(6) 720 -729 (abstract available online: accessed May 26, 2007)

65. Sievert, L.M and V.H. Hutchison. 1988. Light versus heat: thermoregulatory behavior in a nocturnal lizard (Gekko gecko) Herpetologica 44(3): 266 -273 (available online: accessed May 26, 2007)

66. Brames, H. 2007. Aspects of Light and Reptilian Immunity. Iguana 14(1): 18 - 23 (available online: accessed May 26, 2007)

67. Ralph, L., B.T. Firth and J. S. Turner. 1979. The Role of the Pineal Body in Ectotherm Thermoregulation. Amer Zool 19: 273 – 293

68. Solessio, E. and G. A. Engbretson. 1999. Electroretinogram of the parietal eye of lizards: Photoreceptor, glial, and lens cell contributions. Visual Neuroscience 16: 895-907 (abstract available online: accessed May 26, 2007)

69. PreVitamin D3 Action Spectrum CIE 174:2006. 2006. Action spectrum for the production of previtamin D3 in human skin. International Commission on Illumination (Illumination Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Austria.

70. Acierno M.J., M.A. Mitchell , T.T. Zachariah, M.K. Roundtree, M.S. Kirchgessner & D. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman. 2008. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations in corn snakes (Elaphe guttata). Am J Vet Res. 69(2):294-297.

71. Wangen, K., J. Kirshenbaum, and M. A. Mitchell. 2013. Measuring 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Leopard Geckos exposed to Commercial Ultraviolet B Lights. ARAV (2013): 42

72. de Paula Corrêa, M., S. Godin-Beekmann, M. Haeffelin, C. Brogniez, F. Verschaeve, P. Saiag, A. Pazmiño & E. Mahé. 2010. Comparison between UV index measurements performed by research-grade and consumer-products instruments. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 9, 4: 459-463.

73. World Health Organization, & International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. (2002). Global solar UV index: A practical guide. http://www.who.int/entity/uv/publications/en/GlobalUVI.pdf

74. Schmalwieser, A. W., G. Schauberger, W. B. Grant, S. J. Mackin & S. Pope. 2006. A first approach in measuring, modeling, and forecasting the vitamin D effective UV radiation. In: Remote Sensing (pp. 63622C-63622C). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

75. Ferguson, G., A. Brinker, W. Gehrmann, S. Bucklin, F. Baines & S. Mackin. 2010. Voluntary Exposure of Some Western-Hemisphere Snake and Lizard Species to Ultraviolet-B (UVB) Radiation in the field: How Much UVB Should a Lizard or Snake Receive in Captivity? Zoo Biology 29 (3) 317-334

76. Baines, F., Chattell, J., Dale, J., Garrick, D., Gill, I., Goetz, M., Skelton, T. & Swatman, M. (2016) How much UV-B does my reptile need? The UV-Tool, a guide to the selection of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians in captivity. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 4(1): 42 - 63. http://www.jzar.org/jzar/article/view/150

77. Bagnall, S. ZooMed Digital UV Index Radiometer Instructions. 2014. ZooMed Laboratories Inc., San Luis Obispo USA. (available online: accessed March 9th 2015) http://www.zoomed.com/Library//ProductDBFiles/ST-7_UV_Mtr_Instrctns.pdf



 © 2015 UVGuide.co.uk