Advances in Reptile Lighting

A resource for all reptile keepers

what's all this about?
find out about UV light
the vitamin D story..
the meters we are using in our tests
all about sunlight
the UV requirements of different species
UV transmission tests
UV lighting for reptiles
Introduction to the 2005 Lighting Survey
fluorescent tubes on test
compact fluorescents on test
mercury vapours on test
merc vapours for large enclosures
more info soon..
further reading
related websites
meet the team



Special Report :
A problem with some of the new high UVB output
fluorescent compact lamps and tubes

The Report: Introduction - Case histories - Lamp test results
Discussion - Summary, Recommendations and Company Responses- References



References relating to this Special Report

(numbers refer to links in the text)


1. Global Solar UV Index: A Practical Guide. Joint recommendation of the World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. 2002 (available online: accessed 17th July 2007) http://www.unep.org/PDF/Solar_Index_Guide.pdf

2. Long, C. 2003. UV Index Forecasting Practices around the World. Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate 21: 20-23 (available online: accessed 17th July 2007) http://www.aero.jussieu.fr/~sparc/News21/21_Long.html

3. Solarmeter Model 6.5 UV Index Meter http://www.solarmeter.com/model65.html

4. PreVitamin D3 Action Spectrum CIE 174:2006: Action spectrum for the production of previtamin D3 in human skin. 2006. International Commission on Illumination (Illumination Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Austria.

5. Setlow, R. B. 1974. The wavelengths in sunlight effective in producing skin cancer: a theoretical analysis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71 (9) 3363-3366

6. Pitts, D. The Ocular Ultraviolet Action Spectrum and Protection Criteria. 1973. Health Physics. 25(6):559-566

7. Aphalo, P.J. Fluorescent tube, UV-A (Q-Panel UVA-340, 40W) Macam SR. 1999. In: The plant photobiology notes. (available online: accessed 4th September 2007) http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/aphalo/photobio/pdf/spectra/UVA340.pdf

8. Beasley, D.G., J.Beard , J.W. Stanfield and L.K. Roberts. 1996. Evaluation of an economical sunlamp that emits a near solar UV power spectrum for conducting photoimmunological and sunscreen immune protection studies. Photochem Photobiol 64: 303-9.

9. Gasparro, F.P. 2000. Photodermatology: progress, problems and prospects. European Journal of Dermatology 10 (4) 250-254. (available online: accessed 4th September 2007) http://www.jle.com/fr/print/e-docs/00/01/8A/2A/article.md

10. Wolff System Dark Tan tanning lamps : Information page. 2007. Wolff System Technology Corporation, Kennesaw, GA USA. (available online: accessed 4th September 2007) http://www.wolffsys.com/Lamps/darktan.html

11. Bowmaker, J.K., E.R.Loew and M. Ott. 2005. The cone photoreceptors and visual pigments of chameleons. J Comp Physiol A 191(10) 925-932

12. A Choice of Lamps for the QUV Accelerated Weathering Tester. 2004. Q-Panel Lab Products Cleveland Ohio leaflet LU-8160.2. (available online: accessed 4th September 2007) http://www.q-panel.com/UserFiles/File/PDFs-EN/QUV-Lamp-Types-LU8160-EN.pdf

13. Aphalo, P.J. Fluorescent tube, UV-B (Q-Panel UVB-313, 40W) Macam SR. 1999. In: The plant photobiology notes. (available online: accessed 4th September 2007) http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/aphalo/photobio/pdf/spectra/UVB313.pdf

14. Spectrum of FS-T12/UVB series: Spec #: A3-99-39.lwp Light Sources, Inc. (available online: accessed 17th July 2007) http://www.solarcsystems.com/pdfs/uvb_broadband_spectral_sample.pdf

15. Bernard, J. B. 1995 Spectral Irradiance of Fluorescent Lamps and their Efficacy for Promoting Vitamin D synthesis in Herbivorous Reptiles PhD Dissertation. Michigan State University, USA.

16. Berneburg, M.; M. Röcken and F Benedix 2005. Phototherapy with Narrowband vs Broadband UVB. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 85 (2) 98-108

17. Noonan, F.P. and H. A. Hoffmann. 1994. Susceptibility to immunosuppression by ultraviolet B radiation in the mouse. Immunogenetics 39 (1) 29-39

18. van Weelden, H., S.C. van der Putte, J. Toonstra and J.C. van der Leun. 1990. Ultraviolet B-induced tumors in pigmented hairless mice, with an unsuccessful attempt to induce cutaneous melanoma. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 7(2):68-72

19. Forbes P.D., R. E. Davies and F. Urbach. 1978. Experimental ultraviolet photocarcinogenesis: wavelength interactions and time-dose relationships. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 50 : 31-8.

20. Roberts, L.K., D.G. Beasley, D.B. Learn, L.D. Giddens, J. Beard and J.W. Stanfield. 1996. Ultraviolet spectral energy differences affect the ability of sunscreen lotions to prevent ultraviolet-radiation-induced immunosuppression. Photochem Photobiol. 63(6):874-84.

21. Hibma, J. C. (2004) Dietary Vitamin D3 and UV-B Exposure Effects on Green Iguana Growth Rate: Is Full-Spectrum Lighting Necessary? Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 39 (8): 145 - 150 (available online: accessed 17th July 2007) http://www.anapsid.org/pdf/jody-hibma-uvb.pdf

22. Gehrmann, W. H. Personal communication. June 2007

23. Ramer, J.C., M. Roberto, T. Reichard, P. J. Tolson, T.C. Chen and M.F.Holick. Vitamin D status of wild Ricord's Iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and captive and wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta) in the Dominican Republic. 2005. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36 (2) 188 - 191

24. MacCargar, R. Personal communication. June 2007.




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